He turned professional in 1977 and won the Australian Open in 1983. He has spent a large part of his career playing on the European Tour, where he made the top one hundred on the Order of Merit every year from 1983 to 1993, with a best ranking of 22nd in 1989. His only European Tour win came at the 1993 BMW International Open in Germany.
After struggling for form in through the mid and late nineties Fowler enjoyed something of an Indian summer between 2002 and 2004, returning to the top hundred for those three seasons, and recording his best finish in The Open Championship in 2003 when he came joint 22nd.
Another career highlight for Fowler was winning the 1989 World Cup for Australia in partnership with Wayne Grady. In addition to the team title, Fowler won the prize for the best individual performance.
In 2009, Fowler joined the European Senior Tour, making his début in the Jersey Seniors Classic, which was played at the same venue, La Moye Golf Club, at which he had made his first appearance on the European Tour in 1983.